Process Operations

Wax Formation and Control

This course aims to provide an awareness of how wax may be formed and controlled and the effects that it can have on pipeline flow. The course examines what wax is and how it is formed. It discusses flow assurance, details the risks of pipeline plugging by wax, and outlines the various methods of controlling wax formation.
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Learning Outcomes

LO1 Explain what wax is, the conditions it forms under, and the risks it can create

LO2 Identify where and when in a typical condensate or oil system wax may occur and explain how wax influences viscosity and deposits to form blockages

LO3 Describe how wax deposition conditions may be prevented from occurring during typical operating states and explain how the rate of deposition may be slowed down

LO4 Explain how wax can be removed after it has deposited, and identify the risks that may occur during removal

LO5 Describe how wax deposition can be estimated and measured and explain how these values influence field operating practice
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